## Visible Vowels

Visible Vowels is a web app for the analysis of acoustic vowel measurements: f0, formants and duration. The app is an useful instrument for research in phonetics, sociolinguistics, dialectology, forensic linguistics, and speech-language pathology. The program has been developed at the Fryske Akademy (Leeuwarden, The Netherlands) by Wilbert Heeringa under supervision of Hans Van de Velde. Visible Vowels is still under development. Comments are welcome and can be sent to .

##### System requirements

Visible Vowels runs best on a computer with a monitor with a minimum resolution of 1370 x 870 (width x height). The use of Mozilla Firefox as a web browser is to be preferred.

##### Format

The input file should be a spreadsheet that is created in Excel or LibreOffice. It should be saved as an Excel 2007/2010/2013 XML file, i.e. with extension '.xlsx'. An example is schematically shown below.

• Speakers

The first column should contain the speaker labels. Choose 'speaker' as column name. In our example there are three speakers labeled as 'A', 'B' and 'C'. This column is obligatory.

• Vowels

A column that contains the vowel labels should follow. For this column choose 'vowel' as column name. In our example each of the speakers pronounced four different vowels: iː, ɛ, aː and ɔ. Although in this table each vowel occurs just one time per speaker, multiple pronunciations are possible. In case you want to use IPA characters (as in the example), enter them as Unicode characters. In order to find Unicode IPA characters, use the online IPA Chart Keyboard of Weston Ruter at http://westonruter.github.io/ipa-chart/keyboard/. This column is obligatory.

• Categorical variables

An arbitrary number of columns representing categorical variables such as location, language, gender, age group, etc. may follow, but is not obligatory. See to it that each categorical variable has an unique set of different values. Prevent the use of numbers, rather use meaningful codes. For example, rather then using codes '1' and '2' for a variable 'age group' use 'old' and 'young' or 'o' and 'y'.

• Duration

A column which contains the durations of the vowels should follow, with 'duration' as column name. The measurements may be either in seconds or milliseconds. This column is obligatory, but may be empty.

• Spectral variabels

Finally, a set of five columns should follow: 'time', f0', 'F1', 'F2' and 'F3'. The variable 'time' gives the time point within the vowel interval in seconds or milliseconds, i.e. it is assumed that the vowel interval starts at 0 (milli)seconds. The f0, F1, F2 and F3 should be measured at the time given in the column 'time'. The program assumes that they are measured in Hertz and not normalized. The set of five columns may be repeated as many times as the user wishes, but should occur at least one time. For each repetition the same column names may be used. In the example table below f0, F1, F2 and F3 are given for two different time points, hence the set of five columns comprising 'time', 'f0', 'F1', 'F2' and 'F3' occurs twice. A set should always include all five columns, but the columns 'time', 'f0' and 'F3' may be empty.

##### Graphs

Graphs can be saved in six formats: JPG, PNG, SVG, EPS, PDF and TEX. TEX files are created with TikZ. When using this format, it is assumed that XeLaTeX is installed. Generating a TikZ may take a long time. When including a TikZ file in a LaTeX document, you need to use a font that supports the IPA Unicode characters, for example: 'Doulos SIL', 'Charis SIL' or 'Linux Libertine O'. You also need to adjust the left margin and the scaling of the graph. The LaTeX document should be compiled with xelatex . Example of a LaTeX file in which a TikZ file is included:

\documentclass{minimal}

\usepackage{tikz}
\usepackage{fontspec}
\setmainfont{Linux Libertine O}

\begin{document}
{\hspace*{-3cm}\scalebox{0.8}{\input{formantPlot.TEX}}}
\end{document}

##### Implementation

This program is implemented as a Shiny app. Shiny was developed by RStudio. This app uses the following R packages:

• base

R Core Team (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/

• shiny

Winston Chang, Joe Cheng, J.J. Allaire, Yihui Xie and Jonathan McPherson (2017). shiny: Web Application Framework for R. R package version 1.0.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=shiny

• shinyBS

Eric Bailey (2015). shinyBS: Twitter Bootstrap Components for Shiny. R package version 0.61. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=shinyBS

• splitstackshape

Ananda Mahto (2019). splitstackshape: Stack and Reshape Datasets After Splitting Concatenated Values. R package version 1.4.8. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=splitstackshape

• stats

R Core Team (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/

• tydr

Hadley Wickham and Lionel Henry (2019). tidyr: Tidy Messy Data. R package version 1.0.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=tidyr

• PBSmapping

Jon T. Schnute, Nicholas Boers and Rowan Haigh (2019). PBSmapping: Mapping Fisheries Data and Spatial Analysis Tools. R package version 2.72.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=PBSmapping

• formattable

Kun Ren and Kenton Russell (2016). formattable: Create 'Formattable' Data Structures. R package version 0.2.0.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=formattable

• ggplot2

H. Wickham (2009). ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. Springer-Verlag New York. http://ggplot2.org

• plot3D

Karline Soetaert (2017). plot3D: Plotting Multi-Dimensional Data. R package version 1.1.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=plot3D

• MASS

W.N. Venables & B.D. Ripley (2002). Modern Applied Statistics with S. Fourth Edition. Springer, New York. ISBN 0-387-95457-0

• ggdendro

Andrie de Vries and Brian D. Ripley (2016). ggdendro: Create Dendrograms and Tree Diagrams Using 'ggplot2'. R package version 0.1-20. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ggdendro

• ggrepel

Kamil Slowikowski (2017). ggrepel: Repulsive Text and Label Geoms for 'ggplot2'. R package version 0.7.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ggrepel

• WriteXLS

Marc Schwartz and various authors. (2015). WriteXLS: Cross-Platform Perl Based R Function to Create Excel 2003 (XLS) and Excel 2007 (XLSX) Files. R package version 4.0.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=WriteXLS

• DT

Yihui Xie (2016). DT: A Wrapper of the JavaScript Library 'DataTables'. R package version 0.2. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=DT

• psych

W. Revelle (2016). psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA, Version = 1.6.12, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=psych

• pracma

Hans Werner Borchers (2017). pracma: Practical Numerical Math Functions. R package version 1.9.9. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=pracma

• Rtsne

Jesse H. Krijthe (2015). Rtsne: T-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding using a Barnes-Hut Implementation, URL: https://github.com/jkrijthe/Rtsne

L.J.P. van der Maaten and G.E. Hinton (2008). Visualizing High-Dimensional Data Using t-SNE. Journal of Machine Learning Research 9(Nov):2579-2605

L.J.P. van der Maaten (2014). Accelerating t-SNE using Tree-Based Algorithms. Journal of Machine Learning Research 15(Oct):3221-3245

• plyr

Hadley Wickham (2011). The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 40(1), 1-29. URL http://www.jstatsoft.org/v40/i01/

• grid

R Core Team (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/

• ggsave_autosize

Z. Lin (GovTech, Singapore) developed this function for autocropping faceted plots made by using ggplot2

• svglite

Hadley Wickham, Lionel Henry, T Jake Luciani, Matthieu Decorde and Vaudor Lise (2016). svglite: An 'SVG' Graphics Device. R package version 1.2.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=svglite

• Cairo

Simon Urbanek and Jeffrey Horner (2015). Cairo: R graphics device using cairo graphics library for creating high-quality bitmap (PNG, JPEG, TIFF), vector (PDF, SVG, PostScript) and display (X11 and Win32) output. R package version 1.5-9. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=Cairo

• tikzDevice

Charlie Sharpsteen and Cameron Bracken (2020). tikzDevice: R Graphics Output in LaTeX Format. R package version 0.12.3.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=tikzDevice

• shinybusy

Fanny Meyer and Victor Perrier (2020). shinybusy: Busy Indicator for 'Shiny' Applications. R package version 0.2.2. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=shinybusy

Visible Vowels allows to convert and normalize vowel data and calculate some specific metrics. The document here explains how these values are calculated.

##### How to cite this app

Heeringa, W. & Van de Velde, H. (2018). “Visible Vowels: a Tool for the Visualization of Vowel Variation.” In Proceedings CLARIN Annual Conference 2018, 8 - 10 October, Pisa, Italy. CLARIN ERIC.

##### Tutorial

Click here for a tutorial that guides you through Visible Vowels and shows all its possibilities.

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